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Introduction to Chronic Pain

Chronic pain is a condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is defined as pain that occurs every day (or most days) and persists for three months or longer.  Some chronic pain has a structural cause, for example a disease process, inflammation or injury. This is called Chronic Secondary Pain, because the pain is secondary to another process.  In other chronic pain states, no cause for the pain can be identified.  This is called Chronic Primary Pain, and when most people use the phrase ‘chronic pain’ they are referring to Chronic Primary Pain.

It’s a very important distinction, because Chronic Primary Pain and Chronic Secondary Pain require very different treatment approaches. Chronic pain can be influenced by a variety of factors, including physical, psychological, and environmental.

According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, chronic pain affects an estimated 1 in 5 adults over 45 in Australia, making it one of the most common reasons people seek medical care. Chronic pain can significantly impact a person’s quality of life, affecting their ability to work, participate in daily activities, and enjoy hobbies and relationships.

Causes of Chronic Pain

Chronic pain can be caused by disease, inflammation, injury or damage to the nerves or nervous system.  Pain is influenced by a variety of factors, including physical, psychological, and environmental. Physical causes may include injuries, nerve damage, or conditions such as arthritis. Psychological causes may include depression, anxiety, or stress. Environmental causes may include exposure to toxins or pollution.

Common Types of Chronic Pain

Chronic pain can present in different forms and affect different parts of the body. Some of the most common types of chronic pain include:

Back Pain

Back pain is a common type of chronic pain that can be caused by injuries, disease or nerve damage. It can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by numbness or tingling sensations.

Joint Pain / Arthritis

Joint pain is another common type of chronic pain that can be caused by conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or gout. It can affect any joint in the body, including the knees, hips, and shoulders.

Neuropathic Pain

Neuropathic pain, also called ‘nerve pain’, is caused by damage to the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain. It can be caused by conditions such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or shingles. It is often described as a burning or tingling sensation.


Migraines are a type of chronic pain that affects the head and can be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound. They can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, hormonal changes, or environmental triggers.


Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes widespread musculoskeletal pain, as well as fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive difficulties. Its cause is unknown, and it can be difficult to diagnose.


Endometriosis is a condition where cells similar to those that line the uterus, called the endometrium, grow in other parts of the body. They usually grow in the pelvis, but can move to almost any part of the body.  These cells respond to the hormones in the menstrual cycle and this process causes inflammation, scarring and pain.

Diagnosis of Chronic Pain

Diagnosing chronic pain can be challenging, as there is often no specific test or imaging study that can definitively identify its cause. Diagnosis usually involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests, such as X-rays, MRI scans, and/or blood tests. In some cases, a referral to a specialist may be necessary.

Treatment Options for Chronic Pain

Treatment for chronic pain often depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the pain. Some common treatment options include:


Medications, such as simple analgesics, anti-inflammatories, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and opioids may be prescribed to manage chronic pain.  Which medications are prescribed depends on the severity and type of pain.

Physical Therapy

Physical therapy may help reduce pain and improve mobility by incorporating exercises and stretches designed to target specific muscles and joints.  Physical therapy improves strength, balance and general fitness and enable a person with chronic pain to improve their function, as well as decrease pain.

Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a type of therapy that focuses on changing negative thought patterns and behaviours that may be contributing to chronic pain.

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Complementary and alternative medicine, such as acupuncture, massage therapy, or chiropractic care, may provide relief for some people with chronic pain.

Coping Strategies for Chronic Pain

In addition to treatment, there are a variety of coping strategies that can help manage chronic pain. These may include:

Lifestyle Changes

Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy eating habits, and stress management techniques, can help reduce the severity of chronic pain. 

Support Groups

Joining a support group can provide a sense of community and help individuals with chronic pain feel less isolated.

Mindfulness Techniques

Mindfulness techniques, such as meditation, deep breathing, or visualization, can help individuals manage stress and reduce the impact of stress, depression and anxiety on chronic pain.

Preventing Chronic Pain

It is most often NOT possible to prevent chronic pain, but there are steps individuals can take to reduce their risk, such as:

Healthy Lifestyle Habits

Maintaining a healthy weight, staying active, and avoiding smoking can help reduce the risk of developing chronic pain.

Sometimes chronic pain can be highly influenced by depression and anxiety, so learning psychological self-care techniques, and treating anxiety and depression can reduce the risk of developing chronic pain.


Chronic pain is a common and often challenging condition that can significantly impact a person’s quality of life.

There is no one-size-fits-all approach to managing chronic pain, and each person’s pain and pain treatments is individual.  Often, it’s not possible to ‘cure’ chronic pain, however, a combination of treatments and coping strategies may help individuals achieve a better quality of life. It is important to seek medical care if chronic pain persists, as early intervention can improve outcomes and prevent further complications.


  1. What is the difference between acute and chronic pain?
  • Acute pain is typically short-lived and occurs in response to an injury or illness, while chronic pain persists for at least three months or longer.
  1. Can chronic pain be cured?
  • While there may not be a cure for chronic pain, there are treatments and coping strategies that can help manage its symptoms.
  1. Can chronic pain cause depression?
  • Yes, chronic pain can significantly impact a person’s mental health and may contribute to the development of depression or anxiety.
  1. How does stress affect chronic pain?
  • Stress can exacerbate chronic pain symptoms by increasing inflammation and tension in the body.
  1. Is surgery always necessary for chronic pain?
  • Surgery is not always necessary for chronic pain and is typically considered a last resort after other treatment options have been exhausted.
  1. How can physical therapy help with chronic pain?
  • Physical therapy can help with chronic pain by incorporating exercises and stretches designed to target specific muscles and joints, which can improve mobility and reduce pain.
  1. Can complementary and alternative medicine be used in combination with other treatments?
  • Yes, complementary and alternative medicine can often be used in combination with other treatments, such as medications or physical therapy.
  1. Are there any risks associated with complementary and alternative medicine?
  • While many complementary and alternative medicine techniques are generally considered safe, it is important to discuss their use with a healthcare provider to ensure they do not interfere with other treatments or medications.
  1. How can mindfulness techniques help with chronic pain?
  • Mindfulness techniques, such as meditation and deep breathing, can help individuals manage stress and reduce the impact of chronic pain by promoting relaxation and reducing tension in the body.
  1. Can lifestyle changes really make a difference in managing chronic pain?
  • Yes, lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and healthy eating habits, can have a significant impact on managing chronic pain by reducing inflammation and promoting overall wellness.